NOTES: In Dutch, Willem Frederik George Lodewijk, King of the Netherlands.
Reign: 1840-49; William and his family were exiled in 1795 for 18 yrs. As
William, prince of Orange, he entered the British army in 1811 during the
Napoleonic Wars and served as aide-de-camp to Gen. Arthur Wellesley, later 1st
duke of Wellington. William succeeded to the throne upon the abdication of his
father in 1840. The chief event of his reign was the grant in 1848 of a
liberalized constitution that greatly abridged royal power. He was succeeded by his
son William III.
NOTES: In Dutch, Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk, King of the
Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (reign: 1849-90). In 1866 William
agreed to sell the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg to France, thus nearly provoking a
war between France and Prussia. William's long reign was marked by
uninterrupted peace and prosperity. He was succeeded by his daughter
NOTES: Reign: 1948-1980; As a conscientious and hardworking monarch,
Juliana retained the devotion of her subjects, despite political controversy
raised by the Spanish and German marriages of two daughters and her husband's
involvement in financial scandal. She abdicated in favor of her daughter Beatrix
on April 30, 1980.
NOTES: Reign: 1870-85; He was educated in Paris, Vienna and Sandhurst,
England. Throughout his reign Alfonso was greatly influenced by his prime
minister, Antonio Canovas del Castillo (1828-97). His untimely death was
followed by the long, troubled regency of his second wife, Maria Christina of
NOTES: Reign: 1702-1714; Anne's health was not helped by her addiction to
brandy. She became ill in the summer of 1714 and, after suffering a series of
strokes, died at age 49. She had become so stout that her massive coffin was
almost square. In addition to her 12 children shown, there were at least six
other stillbirths or miscarriages of unknown or unrecorded sex. Anne was kindly,
warm-hearted and not very bright. Her title was: Queen of England, Scotland,
France and Ireland. Later it was changed to Queen of Great Britain, France and
Ireland. During Queen Anne's reign the kingdoms of England and Scotland were united
(1707). She died having no surviving children and was succeeded by her German cousin,
George, elector of Hanover. (George I, King of England; 1st Hanoverian King).